Four-Bit Synchronous Up Counter Using Quartus 2

Contents
1. Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4
2. Design …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4
3. Implementation ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5
4. Results…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7
5. Conclusions ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7
6. Appendix A: Source Code (If Applicable)………………………………………………………..8

 

1. Introduction Quartus 2 is a software package produced by Intel, intended for programmable logic device design. The aim of the assignment is to design a Four-Bit Synchronous Up Counter using the Quartus 2 software package, aimed at fulfilling the following list of objectives: a. To design the schematic diagram of the Four-Bit Synchronous Up Counter using JK-Flip Flop, intended to count for every rising edge in the input clock signal from 0000 to 1111 before resetting to 0000. b. To visualize and study the waveform of the input clock signal. c. To visualize and analyse the waveforms of the output signals: DCBA. d. To observe the system simulation of the Four-Bit Synchronous Up Counter. The Assignment helps reveal the modalities of the software package while giving the student a hands-on experience in using the said software to design digital electronic circuits of much higher levels of complexity than the current assignment. 2. Design The given Four-Bit Synchronous up Counter is designed using the JK-Flip Flop. A synchronous counter is a type of counter wherein all the clock inputs of the flip-flops are connected to the same external clock signal source, such that the clocking all the flip-flops occurs simultaneously and the changes in the output of the flip-flops is synchronized with the clock signal. As against an asynchronous counter wherein each flip-flop gets a separate external clock signal as a clock input, synchronous counters reduce propagation delay, cost of the circuit due to reduced components, etc. The circuit consists of four JK Flip-Flops, two AND gates, an external Clock signal and a single Vcc input voltage source. The outputs of the flip-flops are connected to LED. 4-Bit Synchronous Up Counter 5 Figure 1: System Design 3. Implementation The Implementation phase of the project can be broken down into two distinct parts: a. Quartus II The Four-Bit Synchronous Up Counter circuit is constructed in Quartus 2 software package, with web-version of 12.1, running on a 64-bit configuration. Before proceeding to any step, it is imperative to create a New Project Wizard in the software. Follow the following steps to create the same: a. Project Directory: Any Disk Space b. Project Name: counter-4bit c. Number of files added: 0 d. Number of user libraries added: 0 e. Device Family Name: Max 2 f. Device: EPM240T100C5 g. EDA Tools:  Design entry/ synthesis: () 4-Bit Synchronous Up Counter 6  Simulation: ModelSim (VHDL)  Timing Analysis: None h. Operating Conditions:  Vcc INT: 3.3 V  Junction Temperature Range: 0-85oC After creating a New Project Wizard, create a new Schematic File and construct the Four-Bit Synchronous Up Counter according to the Design section mentioned above. After creating the schematic file of the circuit in Quartus II, follow the path: ‘ProcessingAnalyze Current File’ to analyse the circuit.After analysing the circuit, press Ctrl+L to compile the schematic circuit, check for any error messages thrown during the stage of compilation. After a successful compilation of the circuit, Pins were assigned to the circuit by pressing Ctrl+Shift+N or by following the path ‘AssignmentsPin Planner’. The Pin Planner tool is used to assign the input and output ports of the circuit to the respective pins of the device for which the simulation is being run, i.e. EPM240T100C5 in this case. b. Altera ModelSim Open Altera Model Sim, version 10.1. Go to ‘FileChange Directory’ to change the directory of the project to the folder in which the Quartus II file is saved (current project directory path); and then follow path ‘FileNewLibrary’ to create a new library with any name of choice for the given project (do so within the same folder as that of the changed directory). The newly created library will appear in the Library window, wherein single-click on the new library and click ‘CompileCompile’ to add the ‘.vho’ file stored in the ‘ModelSim’ folder of the directory (SimulationModelSim.vho) and click ‘Compile’. 4-Bit Synchronous Up Counter 7 Go to the Library window and click on the newly created library in order to expand it, wherein the newly compiled file is found; the file is double-clicked to open the simulation window wherein click on ‘Run’ to simulate the project and observe the waveform’ 4. Results The circuit output waveforms is visualized in Altera Model Sim and the variations in the output waveform for the changes in the input waveform (external clock signal) was observed and noted. Starting from the top: Green (Vcc), Red (Clock), Blue (A), Yellow (B), Pink (C) and Brown (D). The D bit is the MSB of the counting sequence. It can be observed that the A bit switches states over one complete period of the clocking signal or for every rising edge of the clocking signal. Figure 2 – Input Signals and Output Waveforms 5. Conclusions A Synchronous counter counts an event for every rising positive edge of the clock 4-Bit Synchronous Up Counter 8 signal, i.e., every time there is a rising edge in the input external clock signal, the flipflop output increases by 1 until 1111 is reached, after which the counter is reset to 0000 on the next rising edge. Because the input of the first flip-flop is connected to logic 1 (HIGH), the flip-flip toggles at every clocking pulse, i.e., the A bit toggles every clocking pulse. The toggling of the previous JK-Flip Flop allows for the toggling of the next flip-flop because of cascade connection between the output of the previous flip-flop and the input of the current flip-flop. 6. Appendix A: Source Code (If Applicable) — Copyright (C) 1991-2012 Altera Corporation — Your use of Altera Corporation’s design tools, logic functions — and other software and tools, and its AMPP partner logic — functions, and any output files from any of the foregoing — (including device programming or simulation files), and any — associated documentation or information are expressly subject — to the terms and conditions of the Altera Program License — Subscription Agreement, Altera MegaCore Function License — Agreement, or other applicable license agreement, including, — without limitation, that your use is for the sole purpose of — programming logic devices manufactured by Altera and sold by — Altera or its authorized distributors. Please refer to the — applicable agreement for further details. — VENDOR “Altera” — PROGRAM “Quartus II 64-Bit” 4-Bit Synchronous Up Counter 9 — VERSION “Version 12.1 Build 177 11/07/2012 SJ Web Edition” — DATE “01/01/2020 05:00:29” — Device: Altera EPM240T100C5 Package TQFP100 — This VHDL file should be used for ModelSim (VHDL) only LIBRARY IEEE; LIBRARY MAXII; USE IEEE.STD_LOGIC_1164.ALL; USE MAXII.MAXII_COMPONENTS.ALL; ENTITY counter_4bit IS PORT ( A : OUT std_logic; Clock : IN std_logic; B : OUT std_logic; C : OUT std_logic; D : OUT std_logic ); END counter_4bit; — Design Ports Information — Clock => Location: PIN_14, I/O Standard: 3.3-V LVTTL, Current Strength: Default — A => Location: PIN_92, I/O Standard: 3.3-V LVTTL, Current Strength: 16mA 4-Bit Synchronous Up Counter 10 — B => Location: PIN_95, I/O Standard: 3.3-V LVTTL, Current Strength: 16mA — C => Location: PIN_96, I/O Standard: 3.3-V LVTTL, Current Strength: 16mA — D => Location: PIN_97, I/O Standard: 3.3-V LVTTL, Current Strength: 16mA ARCHITECTURE structure OF counter_4bit IS SIGNAL gnd : std_logic := ‘0’; SIGNAL vcc : std_logic := ‘1’; SIGNAL unknown : std_logic := ‘X’; SIGNAL devoe : std_logic := ‘1’; SIGNAL devclrn : std_logic := ‘1’; SIGNAL devpor : std_logic := ‘1’; SIGNAL ww_devoe : std_logic; SIGNAL ww_devclrn : std_logic; SIGNAL ww_devpor : std_logic; SIGNAL ww_A : std_logic; SIGNAL ww_Clock : std_logic; SIGNAL ww_B : std_logic; SIGNAL ww_C : std_logic; SIGNAL ww_D : std_logic; SIGNAL \Clock~combout\ : std_logic; SIGNAL \inst~regout\ : std_logic; 4-Bit Synchronous Up Counter 11 SIGNAL \inst1~regout\ : std_logic; SIGNAL \inst2~regout\ : std_logic; SIGNAL \inst3~regout\ : std_logic; BEGIN A <= ww_A; ww_Clock <= Clock; B <= ww_B; C <= ww_C; D <= ww_D; ww_devoe <= devoe; ww_devclrn <= devclrn; ww_devpor <= devpor; — Location: PIN_14, I/O Standard: 3.3-V LVTTL, Current Strength: Default \Clock~I\ : maxii_io — pragma translate_off GENERIC MAP ( operation_mode => “input”) — pragma translate_on PORT MAP ( oe => GND, padio => ww_Clock, combout => \Clock~combout\); — Location: LC_X3_Y4_N6 4-Bit Synchronous Up Counter 12 inst : maxii_lcell — Equation(s): — \inst~regout\ = DFFEAS((((!\inst~regout\))), GLOBAL(\Clock~combout\), VCC, , , , , , ) — pragma translate_off GENERIC MAP ( lut_mask => “0f0f”, operation_mode => “normal”, output_mode => “reg_only”, register_cascade_mode => “off”, sum_lutc_input => “datac”, synch_mode => “off”) — pragma translate_on PORT MAP ( clk => \Clock~combout\, datac => \inst~regout\, aclr => GND, devclrn => ww_devclrn, devpor => ww_devpor, regout => \inst~regout\); — Location: LC_X3_Y4_N3 inst1 : maxii_lcell — Equation(s): 4-Bit Synchronous Up Counter 13 — \inst1~regout\ = DFFEAS(((\inst~regout\ $ (\inst1~regout\))), GLOBAL(\Clock~combout\), VCC, , , , , , ) — pragma translate_off GENERIC MAP ( lut_mask => “0ff0”, operation_mode => “normal”, output_mode => “reg_only”, register_cascade_mode => “off”, sum_lutc_input => “datac”, synch_mode => “off”) — pragma translate_on PORT MAP ( clk => \Clock~combout\, datac => \inst~regout\, datad => \inst1~regout\, aclr => GND, devclrn => ww_devclrn, devpor => ww_devpor, regout => \inst1~regout\); — Location: LC_X3_Y4_N9 inst2 : maxii_lcell — Equation(s): 4-Bit Synchronous Up Counter 14 — \inst2~regout\ = DFFEAS((\inst2~regout\ $ (((\inst~regout\ & \inst1~regout\)))), GLOBAL(\Clock~combout\), VCC, , , , , , ) — pragma translate_off GENERIC MAP ( lut_mask => “3ccc”, operation_mode => “normal”, output_mode => “reg_only”, register_cascade_mode => “off”, sum_lutc_input => “datac”, synch_mode => “off”) — pragma translate_on PORT MAP ( clk => \Clock~combout\, datab => \inst2~regout\, datac => \inst~regout\, datad => \inst1~regout\, aclr => GND, devclrn => ww_devclrn, devpor => ww_devpor, regout => \inst2~regout\); — Location: LC_X3_Y4_N0 inst3 : maxii_lcell — Equation(s): 4-Bit Synchronous Up Counter 15 — \inst3~regout\ = DFFEAS(\inst3~regout\ $ (((\inst1~regout\ & (\inst~regout\ & \inst2~regout\)))), GLOBAL(\Clock~combout\), VCC, , , , , , ) — pragma translate_off GENERIC MAP ( lut_mask => “6ccc”, operation_mode => “normal”, output_mode => “reg_only”, register_cascade_mode => “off”, sum_lutc_input => “datac”, synch_mode => “off”) — pragma translate_on PORT MAP ( clk => \Clock~combout\, dataa => \inst1~regout\, datab => \inst3~regout\, datac => \inst~regout\, datad => \inst2~regout\, aclr => GND, devclrn => ww_devclrn, devpor => ww_devpor, regout => \inst3~regout\); — Location: PIN_92, I/O Standard: 3.3-V LVTTL, Current Strength: 16mA \A~I\ : maxii_io 4-Bit Synchronous Up Counter 16 — pragma translate_off GENERIC MAP ( operation_mode => “output”) — pragma translate_on PORT MAP ( datain => \inst~regout\, oe => VCC, padio => ww_A); — Location: PIN_95, I/O Standard: 3.3-V LVTTL, Current Strength: 16mA \B~I\ : maxii_io — pragma translate_off GENERIC MAP ( operation_mode => “output”) — pragma translate_on PORT MAP ( datain => \inst1~regout\, oe => VCC, padio => ww_B); — Location: PIN_96, I/O Standard: 3.3-V LVTTL, Current Strength: 16mA \C~I\ : maxii_io — pragma translate_off GENERIC MAP ( operation_mode => “output”) 4-Bit Synchronous Up Counter 17 — pragma translate_on PORT MAP ( datain => \inst2~regout\, oe => VCC, padio => ww_C); — Location: PIN_97, I/O Standard: 3.3-V LVTTL, Current Strength: 16mA \D~I\ : maxii_io — pragma translate_off GENERIC MAP ( operation_mode => “output”) — pragma translate_on PORT MAP ( datain => \inst3~regout\, oe => VCC, padio => ww_D); END structure;

Four-Bit Synchronous Up Counter Using Quartus 2

Contents
1. Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4
2. Design …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4
3. Implementation ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5
4. Results…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6
5. Conclusions ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7
4-Bit Synchronous Up Counter 3
List of Figures
Figure 1 – System Design …………………………………………………………………5
Figure 2 – Input Signals and Output Waveforms ………………………………….…….6
4-Bit Synchronous Up Counter 4
1. Introduction
Quartus 2 is a software package produced by Intel, intended for programmable logic
device design. The aim of the assignment is to design a Four-Bit Synchronous Up
Counter using the Quartus 2 software package, aimed at fulfilling the following list of
objectives:
a. To design the schematic diagram of the Four-Bit Synchronous Up Counter using
JK-Flip Flop, intended to count for every rising edge in the input clock signal from
0000 to 1111 before resetting to 0000.
b. To visualize and study the waveform of the input clock signal.
c. To visualize and analyse the waveforms of the output signals: DCBA.
d. To observe the system simulation of the Four-Bit Synchronous Up Counter.
The Assignment helps reveal the modalities of the software package while giving the
student a hands-on experience in using the said software to design digital electronic
circuits of much higher levels of complexity than the current assignment.
2. Design
The given Four-Bit Synchronous up Counter is designed using the JK-Flip Flop. A
synchronous counter is a type of counter wherein all the clock inputs of the flip-flops
are connected to the same external clock signal source, such that the clocking all the
flip-flops occurs simultaneously and the changes in the output of the flip-flops is
synchronized with the clock signal. As against an asynchronous counter wherein
each flip-flop gets a separate external clock signal as a clock input, synchronous
counters reduce propagation delay, cost of the circuit due to reduced components,
etc.
The circuit consists of four JK Flip-Flops, two AND gates, an external Clock signal
and a single Vcc input voltage source. The outputs of the flip-flops are connected to
4-Bit Synchronous Up Counter 5
an LED.
Figure 1: System Design
3. Implementation
The Four-Bit Synchronous Up Counter circuit is constructed in Quartus 2 software
package, with web-version of 12.1, running on a 64-bit configuration. Before
proceeding to any step, it is imperative to create a New Project Wizard in the software.
Follow the following steps to create the same:
a. Project Directory: Any Disk Space
b. Project Name: 4_bitcounter
c. Number of files added: 0
d. Number of user libraries added: 0
e. Device Family Name: Max 2
f. Device: EPM2210F324C3
g. EDA Tools: Altera Model Sim
h. Vcc INT: 3.3 V
i. Junction Temperature Range: 0-85oC
4-Bit Synchronous Up Counter 6
After creating a New Project Wizard, create a new Schematic File and construct the
Four-Bit Synchronous Up Counter according to the Design section mentioned above.
After constructing the circuit, press Ctrl+L to compile the schematic circuit, check for
any error messages thrown during the stage of compilation.
After a successful compilation of the circuit, Pins were assigned to the circuit
(Ctrl+Shift+N), and then Nodes were assigned to the Clock input and the four-bit
output LEDs using the NodeFinder.
Open Altera Model Sim, and load the schematic file made above into the Altera Model
Sim to visualize the output waveforms.
4. Results
The circuit output waveforms is visualized in Altera Model Sim sub-module of the
Quartus 2 software and the variations in the output waveform for the changes in the
input waveform (external clock signal) was observed and noted.
Figure 2 – Input Signals and Output Waveforms
4-Bit Synchronous Up Counter 7
5. Conclusions
A Synchronous counter counts an event for every rising positive edge of the clock
signal, i.e., every time there is a rising edge in the input external clock signal, the flipflop output increases by 1 until 1111 is reached, after which the counter is reset to 0000
on the next rising edge. Because the input of the first flip-flop is connected to logic 1
(HIGH), the flip-flip toggles at every clocking pulse, i.e., the A bit toggles every
clocking pulse.
The toggling of the previous JK-Flip Flop allows for the toggling of the next flip-flop
because of cascade connection between the output of the previous flip-flop and the
input of the current flip-flop.

corporate social responsibility (CSR) addendum – Decision Making and Impact portions

Corporate Social Responsibility

Decision Making

Decision: A leader in corporate social responsibility is the Walt Disney Company.  Walt Disney is one of today’s world’s largest and most well-known companies participating in corporate social responsibility. WDC maintains one of the best moral standards in its tourist attraction to its goods and requires environmental sustainability to be prioritized. WDC focuses mainly on ecological, economic, and worker protection laws, though putting more emphasis on voluntary work, they are actively engaged directly with society. The entity aims to support our clients, staff, and companies by making the company a better place to work through their actions in the field of social responsibility aimed at customers.  At WDC, they aim to strengthen the desirability of the content and products made by the company and strengthen relations with customers and family members all over the globe.

The company’s program sets specific objectives that are measurable and workable.  To ensure that they stay on track, they have attached these targets to their profitability.  One way their CSR increases their productivity by increasing their carbon footprint and emissions is to help the environment.  At the moment, they use their emission performance for 2014 as the standard.  We have achieved this by replacing carbon-fuels with alternatives aimed at improving their existing assets and using sustainable solutions. Compared to their 2014 levels, they have lowered their use of water supply by approximately 10 percent. As of 2018, a solar plant at WDC was opened by the company recognizing that they can do more to reduce their energy costs.  The plant’s capacity is adequate to fuel two of its theme parks in Orlando.

Culture: WDC emphasizes common courtesy with such a business-oriented long term view from its workplace culture and management style. For instance, the business’s client base of products, coaching, and information technology research procedures, and mitigation methods encourage workers to guarantee common courtesy in their activities, particularly when conversing directly with clients. The Walt Disney Company believes in bringing people together for events that have a positive impact on the environment. A significant portion of the population has been motivated by the company to participate via charitable services for the government seats in their neighborhoods (Dion, 2017). This program was attended by representatives from various organizations. Through their CSR activities, the organization has built great places to work for its staff, tourists and other companies. Through the CSR, The Walt Disney Company strives in all its corporate strategies to protect the environment. The corporation has greatly promoted environmental education through television programs, such as Disney nature films which immerse viewers in the natural world. The company is currently pushing for its primary long-term goal of eliminating greenhouse gas and waste emissions.

The company also focuses wherever they can on water resource management. The organization has been able to successfully reduce its net pollution by 40%, which demonstrates that their projects are increasingly fruitful and profitable. The company’s current target is to remove more than 50% of its waste that is produced when the material for printing their movies and films by 2030 (Isabella et al, 2017). All of these efforts were designed to benefit their employees, neighborhoods and other stakeholders. The company acknowledges its workers ‘ commitment to their productivity.  We have developed many different programs to help their workers by recognizing this.  One approach was to coordinate with staff their business strategies.  They promote a healthy lifestyle for their workers both at work and in their private lives.  Essentially, they create a well-balanced work-lifestyle that focuses instead of the company on the workers.

Stakeholders: The team that specializes in CSR connects WDC Parks and Resorts visitors and executive producers with ecosystems and existence, which is amazing for educational purposes, inspiring them to also have a significant environmental effect. The Animal management group works with other zoological facilities in the other theme parks in cooperative breeding programs and provides workshops and educational programs.  These services are excellent at producing magical memories for their visitors, while also making a difference for worldwide sustainability. Disney also supports local economies by contributing significant tax revenue and consuming local goods and services in addition to a charitable donation. Hire, train and support a workforce and their families at Walt Disney. WDC workers are effective residents who demonstrate their treatment for the groups under which they currently live via community participation, volunteering, and social security contributions. The institution promotes its charitable work across its government initiative. The WDC is a trusted brand that fulfills the worldwide wishes of individuals and is a vision to most people. It is highly imperative for WDC to also consider to reduce such content which might harm kids. Halting the production of such films is a difficult task since it will reduce the costs. However, consumers are stakeholders and decisions should also be beneficial to them (Pezet et al, 2017).

Stakeholders must have the following values:

Values

  • Honesty: The entity aims to display honesty by speaking openly on its activities.
  • Team: They trust each other, proactively cooperate and create greater value by working together.
  • Customer Focus: Customers are given the priority by the organization
  • Enterprising: Business dealings are disciplined, innovative and courageous.
  • Focused on safety: Security is never compromised.

 

WDC has dedicated more than $100 million to treatment and work in Children’s Hospitals to cure diseases.  We have also established a control system that supervises their suppliers ‘ working conditions.  This enables them to ensure that any work conditions issues are identified and supply chain-related risks are prevented or mitigated.  We invest heavily in innovative ways of continuing to track working conditions.  The organization is spending millions on projects for volunteering and training.  Across different media outlets and their theme park division, they encourage a strong healthy lifestyle. The business has increased its profitability by creating a strong CSR. The company continues to see its year-over-year improvement in profitability. They announced an increase in sales of 9 percent from 2015 in 2017.

Impact

Community: Walt Disney aims to enhance their brands and goods ‘ appeal and improve their relations to customers and neighbors in the world’s communities. Not just if you have a relationship with customers or colleagues, it is also great for the entity’s profit, but this will attract the best candidates planning to work about your company. Philanthropy is a key objective for WDC that provides reserved seats from a selected organization to the members of a selected part of society in exchange for tax exemptions. This is beneficial for both WDC and the beneficiaries. Funds raised from WDC nature films have been used to plant approximately 500 000 trees in South America endangering the Amazon Forest. Besides, the campaign also protected vast hectares of barrier reef in the Caribbean and revived over 40,000 acres of land on the corridors of the island.

The WDC Fund, developed in the mid-1990s, endorses domestic and international non-profit initiatives that safeguard wild animals, environments, and have a meaningful impact on society. Since its founding, the Disney Worldwide Conservation Fund has continued to support more than $30 million in initiatives in around 100 countries. WDC is often involved in community work in terms of initiatives underneath the entrepreneurial direction of its public governance policy to meet its business obligations. For instance, non-profits are given with resources and components for a variety of uses, trying to uplift individuals and members of the community while generating potential consumers to the entertainment parking lots, tourist destinations, animated films, as well as other items of the business.

In environmental organizations with market trends, as well as their partnership with moral responsibilities and moral accountability, international trade has increased, allowing businesses to meet their commercial norms. This regulatory environment has also forced organizations to fulfill their responsibilities in the societal and environmental impacts of operations, promoting sustainable development practice. One of CSR’s main goals is to ensure that businesses develop their businesses with ethics, which means taking into account their social, economic, and human rights impact. The Walt Disney Company has strongly incorporated social outreach into its business model, as social outreach is an organization’s responsibility for the impact on its societal and environmental decisions and activities. Disney’s way of working is about the outcomes of people, the environment, and increasing profits to sustainable profitability. Disney still displays strong respect for its staff, offering unexpected perks that include amusement park season passes as well as chances to attend movie scripts.

The evaluation of CSR issues will be detrimental to the cities of Orlando, Florida where Disneyland is located. In this gargantuan choreography, however, labor advocates see no beauty since there would be a requirement of changes within the working environment. This would then prompt WDC to attempt to cut costs by retrenching its workers. There would be negative effects of doing so such as retrenchment. Thus the pursuit of acting ethically has drawbacks in the form of less revenue for the entity which will then be transferred to employees. They will, in turn, lose their jobs leaving society with a problem of unemployment. In effect, these people will not be able to pay taxes and afford to house.

WDC’s CSR program is sustainability-based.  Their sustainability program focuses on bringing together people and the environment for a better world.  To support of WDC to meet its environmental objectives, they commit to such a project each year. The alternative way they also achieved this is by greater communication among certain organizations that has common targets for inhabitants.  We seem to think we can easily reach their goals while working together. Previously, the organization committed recyclable plastics.  They set the goal of achieving it by 2030.  As of 2017, about 90 percent of recyclable plastics have been used (Rosen, 2016).  Climate change has also been noted by the organization and its contribution to ensuring its sustainability.  The way they did this is to reduce their energy consumption and pollution.  The company has reduced its energy expenditure by more than $500 million by making this commitment and changing its energy use.

Global Environment: According to the Boston College Centre for Corporate Citizenship and Reputation body, Disney was named a pioneer in corporate service accountability. Walt Disney continues to give the charity a greater focus on natural disasters including Haiti’s earthquakes in 2010. On September 24, 2011, the Jane Goodall Global Leadership Awards and the award of Corporate Social Responsibility are announced (Guix et al, 2018). This award recognizes a company or organization that, through responsible business practices, has taken significant steps to improve our environment. The environment remains at the forefront of what Disney is trying to protect. And that’s something that’s going to help the community for years to come. The objective is to help their customers, workers, and business owners whilst also rendering the business an attractive place to work in the field of customer corporate expectations into their initiatives. In making it so attractive, it draws adult children who still have a little kid in them, as well as customers and employees who want to enjoy and work in a good, clean environment. CSR reveals the values of an organization and how it does business, making it a central element of credibility. It is possible to establish trust and goodwill among stakeholders through the credibility generated by a company’s CSR. The Walt Disney Company has also collaborated with other companies to build communities through CSR. Through encouraging people to create a future they envision, there is a special connection between the American Broadcasting Organisation and WDC. Most of the CSR programs of the WDC include mystical creativity, planet year, week of knowledge for juvenile detention, winter creativity, the period of contribution and teething rings. The entity has a great deal of dedication to the nation’s charitable work and responsible leadership. While encouraging and imaginative stories, the business assists others in taking measures toward a better future. The effect of your company’s global environment is highly imperative since disregarding this would likely lead to the company earning a bad reputation in the industry. A bad reputation is not favorable in the future since some customers might end up boycotting the products related to WDC<. In September 2000, the Board of WDC implemented the $10 million the act of Film Ratings Program initiative for which enabled that guidance was provided with regards to the age ratings for movies. There is a perception that most cartoon movies are not harmful to kids. However, that is not true, since sitcoms such as The Boondocks are meant for adult consumption. Therefore, bringing an awareness enabled parents and guidance to make informed decisions when making choices with regards to content accessible to their children.

Walt Disney’s CSR programs include Wildlife Caregiving Society and the Initiative for preserving nature, the eco-friendly effort to keep the atmosphere clean. Disney was speculated that they should be participating in these projects as they needed to do so. Forced because of Hong Kong’s human rights violations.  These goals will be successful as long as they are well planned and managed. Since there is an evolution in the competitive market, it is becoming increasingly important for companies to incorporate CSR. CSR integrates default differentiation organizations that bring a unique value to the business contributing to sustainable productivity in the long term. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is generally very good for society, the environment, and income, so all companies must do the same without any obstacles.

WDC is organized in such a way that they never seem to miss a step they seem to be always ahead of the competition.  The Walt Disney Corporation has been around for about 100 years and was only through a handful of top-level management. This shows that the company is doing something right and they are handling change very well.  So many things have changed over the years, and I think Disney and everything else has changed right. Through their creative style and keeping ahead of the competition, Disney still reports very optimistic sales even in downtime as we were all in the last recession.  Year after year, even when prices are higher, their income is rising.

The company keeps its staff and workers caught up with all the new technology and what people want to see. In many different aspects, the Walt Disney Company is a very successful entity.  They are known for how they are innovative and how they use technology to keep the consumer interested in all they do.  Failure is not an option for Disney and one of the reasons for this is being a learning organization.  Employees maintain continuous learning to help keep the company pursuing its objectives, and that keeps the consumer satisfied.  Besides the fact that rivalry is very intense, WDC always seems to be ahead of them all.

 

 

 

 

References

Dion, M. (2017). Corporate citizenship, social responsibility, and sustainability reports as “would-be” narratives. Humanistic Management Journal2(1), 83-102.

Guix, M., Bonilla-Priego, M. J., & Font, X. (2018). The process of sustainability reporting in international hotel groups: an analysis of stakeholder inclusiveness, materiality, and responsiveness. Journal of Sustainable Tourism26(7), 1063-1084.

Isabella, L. A., Yemen, G., Isabella, L. A., & Yemen, G. (2017). The wonderful world of human resources at Disney. Darden Business Publishing Cases, 1-14.

Pezet, E., & Casalegno, C. (2017). Balancing Under and Over Communication in Sustainability. Symphony. Emerging Issues in Management, (1), 95-110.

Rosen, Z. (2016). Sustainability and the Global Corporation: Role of the CFO.

Film Adaptation Interpretation

Introduction

Shakespeare’s version of A Midsummer Night’s Dream presents a comedy written in 1595. The comedy narrates Theseus marriage and the significant activities that take place in his life. The comedy presents William Shakespeare’s masterpiece, which became written in aristocratic wedding performance. The story also focuses on Amazons queen and the Duke of Athens. Explanations regarding the Athenian lover’s adventure and six incompetent actors become present in the comedy. The six actors are manipulated and controlled pixeys inhabiting the forest. The play presents the most wildly held Shakespeare’s work and extensively performed worldwide. The comedy exhibits four interlocking schemes, which become linked by the wedding celebration of Athens Duke Theseus and the Hippolyta, the queen of Amazon (McMahon 17). The ceremony takes part in the Fairyland realm in the woodland.

The opening of the play starts with Hermia, who is Lysander’s lover. Her father, Egeus, wants her to marry Demetrius. Helena, who is a best friend to Hermia yearns to have Demetrius, but he broke up with her to marry Hermia. Egeus becomes angry and breaks Athenian law, which states that a daughter must marry a suitor who her father chooses or becomes killed. (McMahon 18).Duke Theseus offers her an alternative situation, which includes becoming a nun.

The film synopsis was in the Italy kingdom in the 19th century, where major actors starred Kelvin Klein, Sophie Marceau, and Rupert Everett. In the explanation, Hermia and Lysander become forbidden to marry by Egeus, who is the father. Hermia’s father wants her to become married to Demetrius (Hoffman). After knowing about the arrangements, Hermia and Lysander escape to the forest.

Helena leaked the information to Demetrius and followed them. Helena is a young woman who sincerely loves Demetrius. They roam into the fairy world the moment they reach the forest. The forest becomes ruled by Titania and Oberon, who becomes the fairies queen and king. Due to their love magic potion, mayhem occurs, which leads to Demetrius, and Lysander falls in love with Helena (Hoffman). The situation causes a split between the four of them. Significant differences become depicted in both the text and the film. The film captivates Shakespeare’s comedy version, which exhibits differences. The film presents a strange romances, fairies, and dangerous potions.

Differences in both the comedy and the film

One of the vital issues of Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream is the differences imposed between the fairies, sprites, and magical forces. A Midsummer Night’s Dream presents Shakespeare’s most common and regularly executed comical plays. Michael Hoffman changed the comedy in to film form. The dialogue and the basic plot were similar, but character traits evolved. Hoffman sets out a Shakespeare example of modernisation in the film (Alleva).  The film location is Monte Athena’s Tuscan town, which differs from the setting of the story in ancient Athens.

The place presents a naturalistic scene and mythical with ruined buildings. The modernization enables the director to fit the scheme of the film in a perfect way for the audience. The inventions of Hoffman fails to adjust to the text. Hoffman has deleted several verbal fascinations, which include the language of the villagers in the background being Italian (Alleva). In the text, Titania refuses to give her mate the little page boy due to the Lads dead mother. In the film, the main cause of their quarrel seems to be cabin fever. Titania and Oberon fail to reconcile after being in exile for sixteen hundred years. The severe reduction of Shakespeare’s complex emotionality fails to become instituted in the film. An example is the actions of the fairy folk who are exiled communities desiring new homes. They rustle things out of Monte Athena to identify the motives of the mortals

The fairies’ ideas change regarding the play context by Shakespeare. Titania fails to command rain and lighting in the film. Together with nymphs, they become unable to work the Theseus villa phonograph (Alleva). The fairies respect Bottom when he works as Casta Diva. The explanations of working man according to Shakespeare changes when Hoffman considers him as an individual who lacks glamour towards Titan, but he is a convenient man. The character of Bottom in the text significantly differs in the film. Hoffman expels the conception of Shakespeare from the production of the film.

According to the text, Hoffman presents Bottom as a magnificent monster of happy complacency and does not take criticism seriously. In the film, Hoffman depicts Bottom as having a fragile ego and takes criticism in a negative manner (Alleva). An example includes when he becomes poured with wine that ruins his shirt and Bottom crumbles. In the text, Bottom would have considered the situation as a tribute He believes Titanias are positively wooing towards Kline. In the text, Bottom becomes depicted as an individual who gets what he thinks he deserves. In the film, Bottom achieves what he never imagines to get. The film set in the 1800s enables Hoffman to institute modern inventions. Hoffman’s concept permitted diverse choices of costumes in the way he contrasted Athenians with the fairies. Despite the film adoption of the play suitably, the specifics added are in the passage of the play’s world vision.

 

Conclusion

Literature changes throughout history into diverse styles and forms. Due to current modernization, some actions fit in the scheme of the director while others fail to fit. Hoffman has significantly erased some of the parts which exist in the text. Shakespeare’s version of A Midsummer Night’s Dream and Hoffman and the 1999 Midsummer Night’s Dream film version presents masterpieces in exploring the diverse issues of friendship and love. The main characters, including Demetrius, Lysander, Hermia, and Helena, present love obstacles. Both the text and the film present an individual challenge regarding the barriers by being faithful and committed. The idea imposed by Lysander states that the true love course is never smooth. The differences have led to critically think about the artist’s conception of Shakespeare.

The idea of changing the Athens setting to Italy leads to questioning the film enhancement. Language presents the single film element that rhymes with the original Shakespeare’s play. The language becomes overshadowed by the film’s action to cater to the audience who becomes poorly versed with the language. The film fails to present a sense of mystery and ritual. The setting of the film, tone and the characters presents a diverse approach in the analysis. Michael Hoffman performs an implausible work in the capturing the emotions and feelings of the Shakespearian comedy while instituting the usual script. Despite Hoffman changes in the comedy set, he establishes similar to Shakespeare’s play language. Film adaptations regarding the original text use diverse ways in the transmission of a story.

The text version of Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream presents better analysis as compared to the film. The release of the film instituted too much modernity, which failed to feelings of the audience the time the play became written. In the film version, the characters fitted well on the part they were performing. The film setting contributes to a role that shows two different worlds. The film humorously and effectively demonstrated the challenges that existed among the fairies and lovers. The film conversely failed in the exhibition of the raw poetic analysis exhibited by the comedy.

Works cited

Alleva, Richard. “Reworking Shakespeare, A Midsummer night dream.” 18 June 1999. common weal.

Hoffman, Michael. “A Midsummer Night’s Dream Trailer.” YouTube, Twentieth Century Fox Home Entertainment, 1999, www.youtube.com/watch?v=QYknOe7OluE.

McMahon, Michael. Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Hungry Minds, Inc, 2001.

Essay 1

Lessons from Socrates’ philosophy as a way of life

Socrates, as a Philosopher, lives to make a significant impact in the minds of many people in both the traditional and contemporary worlds. In most of his philosophes, he uses the gift of wisdom, critical thinking, intelligence and courage. Strength and interest in personality make Socrates be a man of profound knowledge. Socrates lives to be a discovery man in understanding the truth, elements that improve good life and moral life understanding (Ritter, 2015). Routledge. Factors such as critical and thoughtful sense are indeed one of the most virtues that become common in the presence of Socrates. He seeks to define justice as one of the significant human attributes as states of the human soul. Socrates philosophy impacts essential values to modern society. Benefits such as critical thinking, wisdom and intelligence have been used by many students, mainly those studying philosophical studies to help in dealing with contemporary problems in society.

Reflecting from the Plato’s Republic, the human soul comprises of virtues that help a person to reason, have an appetite in acquiring knowledge, and a stronger spirit in believing in change. The philosophy of Socrates remains to be an essential tool that can be used by people in modern society to change on attitude towards life. From the book, despite Socrates being poor in writing, he remains to be considered as one of the philosophers who changed the general view of people towards change in behavior. In most causes fighting for reform of life realities usually come with frustrations or negative results. In the book, Socrates faces trial and death in the hands of the Athenian government because the government defines him as a person behind the fight of behavioral change in people in society.

 The life of Socrates can be considered as being dramatic to fit in modern society. However, many people today have found his philosophies to be quite impressive by writing many books about his opinion. Many people today have discovered his views to have strange conventions in the fifth revolution of the Athens century (Ritter, 2015). More so, the nature of knowledge portrayed in his philosophy reflects compelling virtues. Virtues such as personality, appearance, behavior, and different kinds of methods impacted the theme of behavioral change in society. According to the history of Athens, after the death of Socrates, many more Socrates’s are continued to be born.

The definition of the philosophy of Socrates compelled us as a sense of refection to the work of other philosophies from prominent people. For instance, from the book, one of the eminent philosophers, Anaxagoras, claimed that the intelligence of man built on the understanding of possession of two hands (Ritter, 2015). The ownership of two hands is what helps people to manage several activities that can help in improving the standards of living. The teachings of both Socrates and Anaxagoras philosophy implies that the superiority of humankind mainly focuses on developing the personal soul.  The soul is responsible for the governing of the human body and the development of divinity. Socrates’s philosophy demonstrates that human beings, in most cases, do not suffer from the possession of supernatural creatures such as gods and goddesses. It is likely that from the philosophy of Socrates, the attitude and belief in supernatural beings can result to awkward control of the body through a change of immorality and the human soul.

From the philosophy of Socrates, it is remarkable to note that the true dignity of the human soul can truss from different theories in science, which are the primary reflection of many philosophies. Various definitions of the opinions of nature can help show a lack of sense in the human soul. Combining different sets of acceptable units of several branches of science like physics shows that the scientific forms come first. Also, the reflection of social concerns comes second. The definition of his philosophy mainly focuses on the popularization of the virtue of wisdom which is an essential virtue in the lives of the people.

Lessons from the symbolism of Actions from Socrates philosophy

Understand humankind’s activities in the universe, and humankind needs can help in the implementation of critical thinking through focusing more on truths that increase change in behavior potential than the lies.  Looking at Socrates reflection on his philosophy to the intellectual theory, it clearly shows that change in human behavior. The difference can positively impact on improving the ability to master essential aspects of knowledge without necessarily using external features. Socrates is associated with the true discoverer of the comprehensive philosophy that entails valuable lessons that directly reflects the ordinary life of a person (Hall, 2017). In most philosophies, it is easy to symbolize the life of the Greek community with modern society. Since the ideas in the philosophy reflect on how humankind can identify and express valid definitions of different species.

Socrates defines courage, friendship, and the art of living as the primary causes that lead to humankind’s happiness. The idea symbolizes that a prediction in a change of life of the people in society depends on specific virtues.  Previously, the ancient culture described the virtue of goodness as the art of happiness. The technique of joy mainly relies on the science of the humankind’s soul that was reduced by worldly processions such as wealth and reputation. The opinion shows that sophisticated ownership is a factor that only in society opens the eyes of the male gender. The philosophy explains that the act of losing faith is one of the sources that attribute to the truth, which majorly carries the impact of humankind’s soul.

The development of science as a full area of study in the universe begins with the task of purification of humankind’s mind and soul. Mostly, the cleaning focuses on reducing the opposing views from other philosophies (Hall, 2017). Ablution helps to highlight various environmental qualities such as temperature changes and the surrounding rate of justice. On most occasions, the ecological changes eventually turn to reflect different virtues that develop the life of humankind if adequately used.  The exact amount of knowledge of humankind attributes, which can also be the actual benefit, increases a more advanced impact on the completion of several other philosophies.

Difference between Socrates Philosophy and that of his Interlocutors

Generally, the philosophy of Socrates’ reflects on being deterrence and not a value of creation. It follows the dialectic form of conversation among people in society. As from the book, the philosophy of Socrates follows two main stages, referred to as irony and midwifery minds. However, this is a different case to his interlocutors whose philosophies which focus more on the revelation of intellectual aspects that impact positively on the development of virtues like love and peace.  The use of a dialect form to present ideas helps Socrates to identify different elements in the field of human friendship. The use of dialect form gives a structure that efficiently helps to show the point of agreement between two close partners. The arrangement leads to universal truth recommended as the primary source for the development of the human soul.

Callicles, who is one of the interlocutors, is regarded as the main character in opposing the philosopher Socrates. In one of Georgia’s dialogue, Callicles saw as an aristocrat in the Athenian government that is characterized by political ambitions that describes the features of an influential person. Callicles is one of the popular philosophic that comes to differ with the philosophies of Socrates that define justice. On several occasions in the book, Socrates describes the sentiments of Callicles philosophy as hanging. The idea is because he mainly focuses on the change of the impact of justice, depending on how the Athenian government exercised Justice in the courts.

The disagreement brought by different views between Socrates and Callicles about justice in the book describes the highpoint opinions in the history of Plato’s. According to the philosophy of Socrates, for a state to be complete, virtues such as wisdom, discipline and the right justice are the vital requirements. He describes Justice as one of the basics of ethics and political aspects that build up a country. Justice is one of the complex and complicated concepts that achieved quickly. The activities taking place in society, together with the rights of the people are a reflection of the claims that build up the social order.

 Socrates and his interlocutors tend to differ in the description of the meaning of justice. The findings of the two groups’ results to several definitions about what really the term justice refers to.  One the first definition from Socrates, Justice, is described as the quality of speaking the truth and full repayment of the debts to the government. The description refers to as a clear reflection of the traditional moral implications that explain as being honest and competent. However, Socrates interlocutors oppose the interpretation of the term justice. Generally, policies such as paying debts, speaking the truth, being patriotic and having respect to one another are inadequate features to describe Justice.

According to Socrates, the first definition of justice by his interlocutors cannot reflect clearly to the challenges facing the people and the real power brought out by the skill of critical thinking. Polemarchus, one of the interlocutors of Socrates, defines justice as treating friends with an open heart while enemies in the wrong way. Socrates enacts pressure on Polemarchus to change the definition of justice since it was not suitable for a person to be a mistake for mistreating good people. The opinion made Polemarchus modify the definition of Justice by describing it as addressing a friend nicely and an enemy in the wrong way. Later Socrates rubbished the description of Polemarchus since harming him was a bad idea. The claims made Polemarchus drop his view about what the term justice meant.

 

 

 

 

Essay 2

Political Life from Development of the City

The republic of Plato’s comprises of several types of regimes that show different political systems in the lives of the people. The schemes included aristocracy, Timocracy, Democracy, Tyranny and Oligarchy which used to enact power to the citizens in the city (Seery, 2018).  The aristocracy regime involved a system where the philosophical king regarded as the leader of the City with full capabilities. The Regime comprises three sets of groups, which include the ruling class, auxiliaries of the ruling, and order enforcers.  The ruling class consisted of was identified to be having a gold soul. The auxiliaries groups composed of soldiers who describes as people with a silver heart. Lastly, the order enforcers involved philosophers who their hearts description showed to make up of bronze or iron (Seery, 2018).

Timocracy powers mainly caused due to male dominance in the ruling class in the city.  Most of the leaders of Timocracy valued strength, which was mainly attained through political activities such as military conquest and fight for power honors (Ritter, 2015). The development of the city had laid opportunities for the growth of military organs that help to increase the Timocracy powers. The type of power enforcement on the kind of regime reflects aristocracy powers and systems. The leaders in the Timocracy regime applied skills in the field of gymnastics and war. They were also responsible for controlling human activities such as manual work and trade in the city. They are differentiated to aristocracy leaders since most of them were greed to take public wealth in the City for their use. The type of power directly forces the people in the city to respect the aristocratic abilities.

 The development of the city also leads to the growth of the oligarchy regime consisted of a system of government which puts the gap between the rich and the poor. The type of leaders from the scheme was allowed to own property. They possessed characteristics by controlling the class divisions in the city brought out by the class of rich people and poor people. The regime mainly values on virtues such as temperature and moderation. Democracy, on the other hand, had featured as the government of the people (Ritter, 2015). The features included leaders that represented people’s concerns without looking at their personal needs.  The democracy regime comprised of people who only take what belonged to them. Most of the people in the city preferred democracy regime compared to other types of systems.

The use of democracy regime in the city generated to tyranny regime where the interest of the people must be taken keenly.  The system comprised of activities which make the poor in the city to become winners. The system was quite neutral to the life of the citizens in the City. The scheme focused on improving the lives of poor people living in the city. The administration reflects the effects caused by democracy regime. Most of the leaders in the tyranny regime lived to offer justice to the people for fear of being killed by the people. The leaders had features that resemble people’s leaders. The sketching on various types of developments in the city reveals the simplified political regime of tyranny. Most of the political systems used by the leaders in the City tend to favor most on leaders rather than the people.

Plato’s republic reflects on both the importance of showing justice and injustice to the people. The political regimes in Plato’s republic reflect on how different philosophers used to sketch the account of the magnificent city. They revealed that a great city needed to have a just government that takes the interest of the people keenly. Most of the regimes used to govern the city show how the citizens experience the rule. Socrates link the discussion about political justice ad leadership regimes to clearly describe the political life of the citizens

Pluto republic consists of a political system of government that involves concentration and power exercise endured directly to the citizens (Seery, 2018). The attention of power mainly ensured that people feel the leadership of the government. The policy used in the government focused mostly suffered from the use of expertise in the impact of political governance. According to the republic, the enforcement of jurisdiction followed different sets of arguments. The first argument focused on bringing in the effect of ideal political philosophy (Ritter, 2015). The philosophy entailed aristocratic powers, where the leaders use direct potential to lead the citizens. Mainly, the freedom of the people relates to determination by political judgments where justice comprehended on the needs of the leaders.

The second method involved practical political philosophy, where the impure knowledge of the leaders determined the type of political rule (Ritter, 2015). The exercise of power was dominated by the people who lacked a partial understanding of what practice of justice-involved. The law of the people was left to be an investment of people who lacked experience in leadership and politics.  However, Plato’s republic advocated for practical philosophy that entailed mixed styles of leadership. Most of the citizens advocated for an institution of the monarchial rule that reinstates the use of democracy.  Most of the philosophers, like Socrates, preferred the ideal political style of leadership than the political philosophy system.

Education Life from the Development of the City

 Although the republic of Plato is known for its secure defensive way of justice, they also have a compelling philosophical system of education. The leaders in the city believed in the act of provision of training to its citizen (Barrow, 2012). Socrates possesses two different modes of teaching. One relates to school about warrior guidance and the other about the king’s philosophy system of education. He is a character that uses his skills in Education to provide a more stable system of government to the citizens of the city. He uses the method to Glaucon and Adeimantus. The town offers a more permanent account system of education by reflecting it to Socrates’ understanding and vision towards the need for training.

The approach used by Socrates and his interlocutors reflects closely to the vision brought out by the systems of the king’s philosophy account (Seery, 2018). The first account of education included with a purpose in the book. The development of the city brought leaders that use various complicated and conflicting ideas and objects to show the way to the scholars towards the attainment of knowledge and different creation of philosophies. The book examines several dialogues that explain the account of education in the city. It explains both the similarities and differences in the accounts of schooling (Barrow, 2012).  Most of the statements in the book analyzed to reflect on methods equip a better education system to the citizens. It other words, they relate to the ideas and opinions of modern society’ type of education.

The most accounts of education in most cases arise from different types of the question raised by Glaucon, who described the system of knowledge in the city focus on the moderate and personal lifestyle in the society. Socrates suggests that those desires are more potent and vital when it comes to the field of study in the ideal city. On one occasion, the City faces many problems relating to land and security. The population increase impacts more pressure on the need for the significant property. Also, exceptional military security is needed in the city to provide guidance and protection from the invention of the city neighbors. The problems about population and security impact negative on the rate of the accusation of education to the city citizens. The military officers are used to enhance different types of training in the city (Barrow, 2012). The guardians described their system of education as a piece of music that relaxes the soul and builds on the development of the body.

The philosophy of the guardians about education uses a more friendly way to attract the attention of the people (Santas, 2014). It uses tales from the early times of the citizens’ childhood lives. However, the tales are expressed in a controlled way to prevent children from absorbing everything that is beyond their limit. Through the expression of precise tales, a high number of mothers and nurses in hospitals use the skills to build and change the soul of children and the people. In most cases, the children in the city expected to accept anything mainly explained without opposing the ideas.

The content brought out from the tales is mainly meant to uplift the lives of those people who are interested in learning. Socrates opposes different education views from great poets in the city (Barrow, 2012). He accuses the poets of creating poem tales that are unfit for absorption by the people. According to Socrates, the poem tales contain clear lies and also uses unrealistic images of supernatural beings such as gods and goddesses. Socrates uses another education system that mainly focuses on opposing the view about the psychic people. He clearly explains that none of the citizens ever engaged in disunity about the relation to the gods and goddesses.

Socrates, on one occasion, was asked to expound on the features of the city, which included community activities and gender equality (Barrow, 2012). He admitted that for an effective education system, the City needed to be ruled by the king’s philosophy system of learning. Socrates opposed the primary method of knowledge used by the Guardians as incomplete and difficult to understand. The king’s philosophy system suited to nature and expounded the city citizens’ mind on the development of several virtues. The virtues include courage which impacts in the time of war and ad trustworthy

 

 

Essay 3

Conflicts Involving Justice and Political Systems

 Justice is one of the essential moral concepts that a society uses to enhance its political activities. However, many philosophers have tried to get beyond the real definition and the impact of justice in Society.  The philosophers have viewed Justice as a virtue of character and a vital character in developing the quality standards of the political culture. Theories from Plato, Augustine, Hobbies, and Rousseau have produced different views on justice. The theories explain how different philosophers applied their own discovered approaches to show social issues.

Comparisons between Plato, Hobbes, and Rousseau on Justice and Political System

According to Plato, Justice is a virtue that establishes the rational order that defines the role of the people without interfering with the functioning of governmental activities. For Augustine, Justice is one of the cordial values virtues that require the people will take as the priority. Hobbies believe that Justice is generally an artificial tool; hence, civil society needs to have clear and transparent contracts with the people (Chen, 2017). Other explanations on justice have ruled it as an offering equal opportunities for fundamental rights to the people.

Socrates reinstated that the virtue of justice should not at any time used to cause injustices in society. The first part of the book ends with no clear definition of what was meant by the term justice. Most of the parties disagreed with the descriptions that were argued out by the first philosophers. The reports brought adverse outcomes that reflect linguistic therapy. The definition of justice by Socrates showed that the most popular opinions about justice-involved inconsistencies. However, the descriptions of justice partially help to comprehend the general meaning of Justice. Mostly, the democrats reported being making laws that directly support democracy while their counterparts aristocrats, created laws that support the growth of the government (Chen, 2017). The idea shows that justice is a universal virtue that increases the moral value of the society but also a critique to the ruling group. Furthermore, Justice is an inclusive virtue that favors the dominant group of people.

Equal liberty relating to fundamental rights is an essential duty of all members of society. However, several post-Rawlsian theories on philosophies have developed new definitions of justice. The Philosophies have described Justice as a virtue that shows respect to the rights, freedom, and dignity of the people. The explanation of the Philosophies also indicates that those who disrespect the rights and liberties of people should face punished. Even people need to live without interfering with other people’s rights.

The social contract theory mainly focuses on the basics of how the leaders practice laws to the people. The individual desire for security and the demands of the people explain more about the impact of justice in society (Chen, 2017). The hopes are mainly fulfilled through a collective agreement to transform social human life in an organized community. The concept of social contract theory reflects from various ancient philosophers in Greek.  Thomas Hobbies considered being one of the founders of the social contract theory. However, the view of Rousseau has widely seen as a total disagreement to the opinion of Hobbies and Plato about justice and impact on political society.

Socrates reinstated that the virtue of justice should not at any time used to cause injustices in society. The first part of the book ends with no clear definition of what was meant by the term justice (Santas, 2014). Most of the parties disagreed with the descriptions that were argued out by the first philosophers. The reports brought adverse outcomes that reflect linguistic therapy. The definition of justice by Socrates showed that the most popular opinions about justice-involved inconsistencies. However, the descriptions of justice partially help to comprehend the general meaning of Justice. Mostly, the democrats reported being making laws that directly support democracy while their counterparts aristocrats, created laws that support the growth of the government. The idea shows that justice is a universal virtue that increases the moral value of the society but also a critique to the ruling group. Furthermore, Justice is an inclusive virtue that favors the dominant group of people.

Plato’s idea directly connects to the history of the Greek community over many years. The ideas he showcases in the text do not show a clear reflection about what should develop to the current political period. However, the opinions Plato reflect to the research of the political rule of Athens depending on their history and political view of his time. The idea clear explains the reason why Plato favored tyranny leadership. He thought that the tyranny leaders could endorse on democratic values of the government and the people.

There has been a lot of confusion on how to relate the work of Plato, Hobbes and Rousseau. For instance, the thought of Rousseau has considered acquiring his view on the affinity of the community and the virtues that depict in various societies (Santas, 2014). However, his perspective considered to have some similarities to the view s of Hobbies and Plato’s. The views of Plato regarded to have a positive impact on the purification of the people’s hearing. Rousseau expressed different gaps o the view brought out by both Hobbies and Plato. In many cases, Rousseau considered being a student of Hobbies. The reference is because on many of his philosophies, the views reflect different Philosophies of Hobbies like the principle of the political right that led to several reformulations (Santas, 2014).

Meaning of Justice

Most of the western philosophers described justice as the most vital virtue in all the merits in society. The definition of Justice on different views helps to build on the interpersonal relationship between people. It also helps to establish a stable society. Reflecting the historical impact of the theories develops a better understanding of justice in other terms, such as people’s concern of being free.

Political justice, regarded as a term that varies depending on the political aspects of the highlight. Political Justice is characterized by features that used in a political sphere, pointing out different styles of dealing with people and the way of treating criminal activities. Justice is one of the factors that directly related to the people of society. Social justice is a philosophical concept that refers to fair and equal treatment offered to the people. The term justice can also describe as an individual trait that has a grounding reference to the impact of social justice.

\Plato describes Justice as an essential idea in Greek society. On an explanation of Justice, he uses the word Dikaisyane to refer to Justice (Santas, 2014). The term in the Greek people refers to correct immorality or the kind of righteousness. The definition of the Word covers the aspects of personal conduct that affect the environment and the lives of other people. Plato had a high opposing view on the declining condition in the government of Athens. The effect comes since Athens’s democracy was declining at a rapid rate. Plato recommended justice as the only way that could use to save democracy in the Athens government.

Relationship between Justice and Conflict

Thrasymachus opinion is one of the primary sources that show where power is the ultimate goal. The views mainly focus on exercising power in any possible way. Thrasymachus defines justice is something that establishes the advantage of creating the rules to become stronger. Ability defines as an element that pushes the development of Justice.  The government that pursues freedom is similar to the government that enhances the jurisdiction of power. Real democracy exists only if a government spearheads a precise exercise of power to its subjects. Thrasymachus comments that a government that is likely to reduce conflicts from the citizens

Conflict is a universal element that can occur at any time in any place. According to Plato, the cut or breaking of fundamental laws may also cause conflict.  Aggression in human beings may also cause friction in society. Battle mainly starts from a clash between that rises from interest among people or between different communities. Conflict may even expand a result of differences between the speed at which the social norms change in the society and desires brought by different genders.

In contemporary society, different factors have attributed to causing conflict among the people in society.  In the republic, Plato and Aristotle have different kinds of motives regarding philosophy.  Both had different opinions on elements that used to govern humankind’s soul. According to Plato, personal fulfillment and mental desires play an essential role in ensuring that humanity uses the divinity of the soul to administer other people (Santas, 2014). This an opposite view to the view of Aristotle, where the ruling of the city should only focus on gender and not the soul.

The political and economic crisis is one of the primary causes of conflict in society. According to history, poverty, in many instances, has risen to become the critical aspect that triggers the start of war and strife among the people. Countries that lack proper implementation to resolve the problem of poverty are likely to face frequent and rapid disputes involving social injustices. Most of the conflict between the government and the people has reported being caused by activities that include the denial of fundamental rights and freedoms of the people.

The relation between justice and conflict generally produces one of the most influential aspects of society. Justice is one of the critical elements that apply to solve different kinds of conflict in a Society. The idea of having a definite system of justice leads to a sense of having a stable community that is free from crisis and conflict. Most of the factors that use to enact effective Justice in a community are the same elements that apply to solve the dispute in society.

References

Barrow, R. (2012). Plato and Education. Routledge.

Chen, C. S. (2017). Justice and Law in the Republic and Mencius. NTU L. Rev.12, 177.

Field, G. C. (2013). Plato and His Contemporaries (RLE: Plato): A Study in Fourth Century Life and Thought. Routledge.

Hall, J. (2017). Plato’s Legal Philosophy. In Plato and Modern Law (pp. 33-68). Routledge.

Ritter, C. (2015). The Essence of Plato’s Philosophy. Routledge.

Santas, G. (2014). The Socratic Method and Ethics. Ancient Ethics, 85.

Seery, J. E. (2018). Political theory for mortals: Shades of justice, images of death. Cornell university press.

White, N. (2013). Plato’s ethics.

Winspear, A. (2017). The genesis of Plato’s thought. Routledge.

Write about ONE element of your 2075 socio-poli-economic life at ALL THREE levels of Braudel’s analysis and with reference to SES and key concepts/themes of this course. This means you will describe your own material life in terms of the

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Housing Consumption

Needs, patterns, as well as trends in the housing consumption in a changing and contemporary society, has been a significant concern of professionals in recent years. Housing consumption encompasses diversity of issues that are influenced by different consumers in the market, especially those who seek to provide consumable and shelter services for their households as well as themselves. The consumption of houses is influenced by affordability, appropriateness, level of income, as well as the availability of the housing stock.  In the private market, housing consumption is the ultimate outcome of housing expressed demands and is controlled by the demand and supply theory. Housing demand is responsive to the price of housing, distributions as well as levels of consumer income, tastes, and preferences, household composition, amount of other goods, as well as demographic influences. This paper, therefore, discusses the consumer and the housing stock demands and supplies, housing consumption decisions, as well as diversity and discrimination.

Supply and demand influence the consumption of housing as it relies heavily on them. Every housing transaction constitutes a seller and a buyer. A low supply causes a direct increase in prices. On the same note, an increase in demand increases the prices of housing (Piazzesi 532). On the other hand, an oversupply and or a weak economy lead to low housing demand, which in turn lower their prices. Borrowing costs or interest rates are some of the factors that influence the demand for housing. People are more likely to take more debts when the interest rates are low. As a result, they are able to finance the purchase of houses as the amount they have to pay as interests are not burdensome. If the number of buyers increases, demand increases. On the same note, if the supply of housing inventory is limited, people from a low-interest environment tend to buy even more.

When the housing supply is constant, the suppliers may increase the inventory. Similarly, consumers may expand rooms to incorporate their family or buy more. As a result, the construction of new home and increase in development, adding to the already existing (Piazzesi 532). Contrary, during the time of disasters such as earthquakes and floods, or when there is demolishing of the existing properties, the housing inventory decreases. Therefore, demand and supply affect the consumption of housing. Besides, the confidence of the consumers increases the demand for houses. The housing consumption and market, as well as the future of the economy in housing, depending on the people’s confidence. For example, the demand for houses is more likely to rise faster in a booming market. Moreover, the consumption of housing is affected by affordability. In income levels keep increasing, people are able to afford more housing. On the other hand, during rapid economic growth, the consumption of houses increases with the rising demand.

In conclusion, housing consumption encompasses diversity of issues that are influenced by different consumers. The consumption of houses is influenced by affordability, demand, and supply, level of income, as well as the availability of the housing stock. A low supply causes a direct increase in prices while an increase in demand increases the prices of housing. The consumption of housing is also affected by affordability.

 

Works Cited

Piazzesi, Monika, Martin Schneider, and Selale Tuzel. “Housing, consumption and asset pricing.” Journal of Financial Economics 83.3 (2007): 531-569.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Write about ONE element of your 2075 socio-poli-economic life at ALL THREE levels of Braudel’s analysis and with reference to SES and key concepts/themes of this course. This means you will describe your own material life in terms of the

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Housing Consumption

Needs, patterns, as well as trends in the housing consumption in a changing and contemporary society, will significantly affect the real estate demands in future. Housing consumption will involve diverse issues that will influence consumers in the market, especially those who seek to provide consumable and shelter services for their households as well as themselves. The consumption of houses is influenced by affordability, appropriateness, level of income, as well as the availability of the housing stock.  In the private market, housing consumption is the ultimate outcome of housing expressed demands and is controlled by the demand and supply theory. Housing demand is responsive to the price of housing, distributions as well as levels of consumer income, tastes, and preferences, household composition, amount of other goods, as well as demographic influences. This paper, therefore, discusses how demand and supply will affect housing consumption by 2075.

Supply and demand play a critical role in the housing industry. A low supply causes a direct increase in prices. On the same note, an increase in demand increases the prices of housing (Piazzesi 532). On the other hand, an oversupply and or a weak economy lead to low housing demand, which in turn lower their prices. Borrowing costs or interest rates are some of the factors that influence the demand for housing. People are more likely to take more debts when the interest rates are low. As a result, they are able to finance the purchase of houses as the amount they have to pay as interests are not burdensome. If the number of buyers increases, demand increases. On the same note, if the supply of housing inventory is limited, people from a low-interest environment tend to buy even more. However, increase in demand can trigger production which in turn can lead to recession. For example, during the Great Recession, the demand of house increased which led to increase in supply. As a result the prices fell below the market values which caused a recession.

Drawing lessons from the Great Recession, as a real estate agent, it is more important focus on both supply and demand. While demand will trigger mass production in future, especially due to increase in populations, real estate will have to regulate supply. Consequently, producers should embrace different strategies from over producing such as allowing consumers to expand their existing rooms to incorporate their family. As a result, the construction of new home will decrease or remain constant (Piazzesi 532).  Therefore, demand and supply will affect consumption of housing. Besides, the confidence of the consumers will increase the demand for houses. The housing consumption and market, as well as the future of the economy in housing, will be determined by the people’s confidence on both the market and the producers. For example, the demand for houses will most likely rise faster in a booming market. Moreover, the consumption of housing will be affected by affordability.

In conclusion, housing consumption will encompass diversity of issues that will influence consumers. The consumption of houses, therefore, will be influenced by affordability, demand, and supply, level of income, as well as the availability of the housing stock. A low supply causes a direct increase in prices while an increase in demand increases the prices of housing.

 

Works Cited

Piazzesi, Monika, Martin Schneider, and Selale Tuzel. “Housing, consumption and asset pricing.” Journal of Financial Economics 83.3 (2007): 531-569.